Dismorphia theucarila, thirteen subspecies for this mimetic butterfly that flies from Mexico to Brasil and Northern Peru
(unknown from Southern Peru and Bolivia?).
for this species we clearly have three different geographic areas, each area with its own endemic phenotypes:
- Mexico and Central America, where all specimens look the same, i.e. like ssp fortunata; wingspan between 39 and 48 mm.
- South America West of the Andes, a small area with specific phenotypes with a lemon yellow ground color; wingspan from 38 to 51 mm
- South America East of the Andes, a very large zone with two distinct areas
1 - Colombia and Venezuela with orange phenotypes, from limited orange markings to a full orange ground color for females
2 - from Ecuador South and Eastwards, with two "types", one of them, type A, being extremely variable, and the other one, type B, being noticeably larger.
type A, wingspan from 37 to 48 mm
type B, wingspan from 47 to 56 mm, and usually flying at higher elevations, but not always...
here are specimens we collected in each of these three areas
Mexico an Central America
Jicacal, Vera Cruz, Mexico
Atitlan volcano, Guatemala
Alta Vera Paz, Guatemala
Santa Tecla, el Salvador
Alajuela & Cartago, Costa Rica
San Vito, Costa Rica
no real differences from Vera Cruz down to the Costa Rica - Panama border.
South America West of the Andes
Reserva Cotacachi Cayapas North, Ecuador - 800 m
Reserva Cotacachi Cayapas West, Ecuador - 100 m
Reserva Cotacachi Cayapas South, Ecuador - 1200 m
South America East of the Andes
Valle del Cauca, Colombia
Napo, Ecuador - 500 m
Rio Negro, Tungurahua, Ecuador - 1600 m
Sangay NP, Puyo, Ecuador - 1000 m
Sangay NP, Palora, Ecuador - 1000 m
Sangay NP, rio Pastaza, Ecuador - 1300 m
Sangay NP, Sardinayacu, Ecuador - 1200/1500 m
Sangay NP, centro, Ecuador - 1700 m
Morona Santiago South, Ecuador - 1800 m
this last female looks markedly different, but what else could it be?
Amazonas & San Martin, Peru
Madre de Dios, Peru