Heliconius hecale

Heliconius hecale, 28 subspecies in Holzinger, 29 on butterfliesofamerica - and not exactly the same ones - and certainly more than one hundred described forms; all this from Mexico to Bolivia.


Chiapas, Mexico


Santa Rosa, Guatemala, border with el Salvador


lago de Coatepeque, el Salvador - 800 m


Zacapa, Guatemala, border with Honduras


Atlantic side, Honduras & Nicaragua

last two are females


North and Central Costa Rica

last two are females

similar looking phenotypes, flying from Mexico to Costa Rica, seem to surround the original population of el Salvador


Trujillo, Venezuela


Tachira, Venezuela

last three are females


Otanche & Boyaca, Colombia

last two are females


Valle del Cauca, Colombia


Cotacachi West, Ecuador - 100 m

specimens from Panamà and Northern Colombia (East and West) could help understand the transition between Northern phenotypes and these  Western ones that look completely different


Napo, Ecuador

last specimen a female


Sangay NP North East, Ecuador - 1000 m


Sangay NP  East, Ecuador - 1300 m


Sangay NP South East, Ecuador - 700 m


Loreto, Peru


San Martin, Peru

only females


Junin, Peru

last three are females


Puerto Bermùdez, Peru


Cuzco, Peru


Chapare, Bolivia


Amazonas & Para, Brasil

last two are females


Belem, Brasil

there are quite a few species indeed where specimens from South America Atlantic coast look rather like the Pacific coast phenotypes, while, between the two, you have completely different populations?



last ten are females


Bolivar, Venezuela


Aragua, Venezuela